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Public Provident Fund (PPF)

Public Provident Fund (PPF) is a government-backed long-term savings scheme in India, popular for its tax-efficient benefits and reliable returns. It is an ideal investment avenue for individuals looking to build a retirement corpus while enjoying tax deductions.


The Public Provident Fund (PPF) scheme is one of the most preferred investment avenues for Indian citizens. Offering guaranteed returns, tax benefits, capital security and long tenure, PPF accounts have become integral to the retirement planning and savings goals of Indians.

This comprehensive guide provides a deep dive into all aspects of PPF – how it works, interest rates, tax benefits, and comparison with other products. Whether you are new to Public Provident Fund or looking to open an account, this guide will provide clarity on everything you need to know about managing PPF – from opening an account to investing, withdrawals, loans, tenure and interest rates.

What is PPF? – Understanding the Basics

The Public Provident Fund (PPF) is a long-term investment and savings scheme backed by the Government of India. It is one of the most popular tax-saving instruments available to residents of India and was introduced in 1968. Some key features of the Public Provident Fund are:

  • It has a maturity period of 15 years which can be extended in blocks of 5 years.
  • The investment has a sovereign guarantee and returns are fully exempted from income tax.
  • It offers guaranteed returns as interest rates are declared quarterly by the government based on prevailing rates.
  • The annual investment limit is Rs 1.5 lakhs and the total balance cannot exceed Rs 1.5 lakhs in one financial year.
  • Accounts can be opened in designated bank branches and India Post offices. Most nationalized banks allow the online opening of PPF accounts.

In summary, the Public Provident Fund is a long-term retirement planning option that provides fixed and tax-free returns to investors. It helps individuals save tax through deductions up to Rs 1.5 lakhs under Section 80C. The principal investment and accumulated interest are also fully exempt from tax at the time of withdrawal.

How does the Public Provident Fund work?

The PPF account works like a fixed deposit but with added tax benefits. The interest accrues as per government rates and compounds annually. Flexible deposits, tax deductions and completely tax-free maturity make it a popular long-term investment option. A Public Provident Fund account can be opened by Indian residents including NRIs. The key features related to Public Provident Fund working are:

  • The minimum annual contribution is Rs 500 while the maximum amount is Rs 1.5 lakhs in a financial year.
  • The interest rate is compounded annually and announced by the central government every quarter.
  • Interest earned and maturity proceeds are completely tax-free.
  • Deposits can be made in a lump sum or 12 instalments per year. There is flexibility to not deposit in some years.
  • Only one PPF account can be held by an individual. Accounts opened for minors are counted in the same limit.
  • Premature withdrawals and loans against PPF balance are allowed under certain conditions before 15 years.
  • The maturity can be extended indefinitely beyond 15 years in blocks of 5 years.

What are the types of PPF accounts?

PPF accounts can be individual or joint, with minor accounts being another option. Each type serves different needs and comes with specific rules. Understanding these can help you make an informed decision about the type of PPF account that best suits your financial goals. Public Provident Fund accounts can be opened as:

  • Individual account – This is the most common type opened by residents for self-investment.
  • Joint account – Available only for Accounts opened on behalf of minors. Can be opened jointly with a legal guardian.
  • HUF account – PPF account in the name of Hindu Undivided Family businesses.
  • Account for a minor – Opened by parents/guardians on behalf of minors below 18 years.
  • Account for an adult-dependent – Account opened by guardians for dependants with disabilities.

So the PPF account types are designed to allow investments by individuals as well as HUFs and those opening on behalf of minors and dependents. The common process and rules apply to all account types.

Opening a PPF Account

Documents required for PPF Account

Opening a Public Provident Fund account is straightforward but requires specific documentation. Typically, identity proof, address proof, and photographs are needed.

This segment provides a detailed checklist of the documents required to ensure a hassle-free account opening process. The key documents required are:

  • PAN Card: This is a mandatory KYC document for all Public Provident Fund accounts.
  • Address Proof: Documents like an Aadhaar card, voter ID or driving license are required as address proof.
  • Photographs: Passport-size photographs are required on the PPF application form.
  • Identity Proof: Documents like a passport, Aadhaar or PAN card can serve as identity proof.
  • Other KYC documents: Form 60 if no PAN, a declaration if applying on behalf of a minor.

So in summary, a PAN card, address proof, photographs and identity proof are the key documents needed to open a Public Provident Fund account as an individual applicant.

Application process for Public Provident Fund 

The process of opening a Public Provident Fund account can be done either online or offline, depending on the bank or post office. Now let’s walk you through each step, from filling out the application form to making your first deposit, ensuring you have all the information needed to start your PPF journey. The key steps are:

  • Collect KYC documents and fill out the Public Provident Fund application form correctly. Most banks provide online forms.
  • Submit the form with documents at the PPF account opening bank branch or nearest post office.
  • The forms are processed and the account gets opened within 7 days after verification.
  • The account holder gets a passbook with account details. The passbook needs to be presented for every new deposit.
  • Online portals also provide digital passbooks and SMS updates after opening an online PPF account.

Overall, after the submission of documents and forms, the account opening process is quick and completed within a week. Customers can then start depositing funds in their Public Provident Fund.

Managing a Public Provident Fund Account

Once a Public Provident Fund account is opened, account holders need to make deposits before the 5th of every month to invest funds. Some key aspects are:

  • The minimum deposit is Rs 500 per year while the maximum is Rs 1.5 lakhs in a financial year.
  • Deposits can be a lump sum or in instalments of fixed amounts every month. Monthly deposits are flexible.
  • In case of missed deposits, the account holder can make up by depositing Rs 1500 per year.
  • Deposits can be made via cash, cheque, demand draft or online bank transfer in an active PPF account.
  • The PPF passbook needs to be presented at the branch for every deposit made into the account.
  • One can transfer a PPF account from one branch to another branch of the same bank or even another bank.

So Public Provident Fund accounts offer flexibility in investing with no restriction on frequency or mode of deposits.

Public Provident Fund withdrawal rules – Know When and How

Withdrawals from a Public Provident Fund account are subject to certain conditions and can be made after a specific period. Knowing these rules is crucial for effective financial planning. Certain rules govern the withdrawal of funds from a PPF account before maturity:

  • Partial withdrawals are allowed from the 7th year onwards for specific expenses like education or health.
  • Premature closure is allowed for the treatment of serious diseases or life-threatening illnesses.
  • The PPF account cannot be closed before completion of 5 years from opening.
  • After 15 years, the investor can make partial or full closure along with the accumulated interest.
  • For premature withdrawals before 15 years, only the principal amount can be withdrawn. The interest will be forfeited.
  • Premature closure results in loss of further interest earnings and tax benefits.

So while early withdrawals are allowed in case of emergencies, normal investors must maintain the account for 15 years to earn maximum interest and avail tax benefits year after year.

PPF Interest Rates

Current and historical PPF interest rates

The interest rates of the Public Provident Fund, set by the Government of India, vary over time. This section provides up-to-date information on PPF interest rates and their historical changes.

  • The current PPF interest rate is 7.1% per annum for the quarter Jan-March 2024.
  • Historically, PPF rates have ranged from 5% to 12% per annum over the last 10 years.
  • Interest rates were highest at 8.7% in Q1 of 2020-21 and have been steadily reduced since then.
  • PPF rates follow the downward trend of declining bank interest and FD rates in India over the years.
  • However, Public Provident Fund still offers higher returns than other fixed-income options like bank FDs.

So while PPF rates have seen a downward trend, they continue to beat bank FD returns and offer assured returns backed by government guarantee.

How interest is calculated on Public Provident Fund

The calculation of interest in Public Provident Fund accounts is unique and understanding it can help you plan your contributions more effectively. Here, we’ll break down the method of interest calculation, including factors like the date of deposit and monthly interest accrual, to give you a clearer picture of how your savings grow. The PPF interest calculation happens as per the following method:

  • Interest is calculated annually on the lowest balance between the 5th and the end of every month.
  • The interest gets compounded annually and added to the principal on March 31 every year.
  • Interest accrues even for the months when no fresh deposits are made in the Public Provident Fund account.
  • The frequency of deposits does not impact the interest calculation. Only the lowest balance matters.
  • The longer the funds remain invested, the greater the benefit of compounding interest year after year.

So while deposits can be irregular, interest accrues every month on the lowest balance and compounds annually at the prescribed Public Provident Fund interest rate.

Tax Benefits of Public Provident Fund (PPF)

PPF under Section 80C

One of the biggest attractions of PPF is its tax-saving feature under Section 80C of the Income Tax Act. Contributions to the Public Provident Fund are deductible up to a certain limit, significantly reducing your taxable income. The key points are:

  • The maximum annual PPF contribution of Rs 1.5 lakhs qualifies for deduction under Section 80C.
  • This limit is inclusive of all investments like life insurance premiums, EPF, ELSS, etc. done in a financial year.
  • The amount deposited in a Public Provident Fund account up to Rs 1.5 lakhs gets excluded from total income, thereby reducing tax liability.
  • To claim the deduction, the taxpayer has to submit proof of PPF contribution when filing income tax returns.
  • The Section 80C deduction results in substantial tax savings every year for investors in the 30% tax bracket.

So the primary benefit of investing in the Public Provident Fund is availing annual tax deductions up to Rs 1.5 lakhs under the overall Section 80C limit of the Income Tax Act.

Tax implications on maturity proceeds

The maturity proceeds from a PPF account are entirely tax-free, making it an extremely tax-efficient investment option. This section discusses the tax implications at the time of maturity and how it affects your overall financial planning.

  • The entire principal invested amount and the interest earned during the 15 years enjoy EEE (exempt-exempt-exempt) status.
  • No tax is applicable at any stage – investment, interest accrual or withdrawal of maturity amount.
  • The maturity proceeds thus include the benefits of compounding returns over 15 years with no tax incidence.
  • This allows the PPF corpus to grow significantly compared to post-tax returns in other fixed-income instruments.

Therefore, the PPF offers the dual benefit of tax savings during the tenure as well as tax exemption on withdrawals making it a unique debt instrument.

Public Provident Fund vs Other Investment Options


Both the Public Provident Fund and Employee Provident Fund (EPF) are popular retirement saving schemes in India, but they differ in terms of features, benefits, and suitability.

  • PPF can be opened by any resident Indian while EPF is available only to salaried employees.
  • The annual investment limit is Rs 1.5 lakhs for PPF and Rs 2.5 lakhs for EPF.
  • PPF currently offers 7.1% interest while EPF offers 8.1% with an EPS component.
  • PPF allows partial withdrawals after the 7th year while EPF permits withdrawals only on retirement or unemployment.
  • The maturity period is 15 years for PPF but no fixed tenure for EPF.

So while both offer tax benefits, EPF is suited for salaried investors who want higher contribution limits but have a long-term horizon. PPF offers more liquidity and flexibility.

PPF vs Bank FDs

Comparing Public Provident Funds with Bank Fixed Deposits (FDs) is crucial for investors looking for safe investment avenues. While FDs offer flexibility and liquidity, PPF offers tax benefits and potentially higher returns. Some key differences between PPF and Bank Fixed Deposits:

  • PPF offers sovereign guarantees while bank FDs have the risk of default, although minimal.
  • The interest rate on PPF is 7.1% while bank FDs currently offer 5-6% for similar tenure.
  • PPF interest and maturity proceeds are tax-free while bank FD interest is taxable.
  • PPF has a lock-in of 15 years while bank FDs allow premature withdrawal with the penalty.

So Public Provident Fund scores over bank FDs due to higher tax-free assured returns, capital guarantee and long-term compounding benefits.


National Savings Certificates (NSC) and PPF are both government-backed, but they cater to different investment horizons and liquidity needs. PPF has the following advantages over National Savings Certificates (NSCs):

  • PPF allows annual contributions while NSCs require lump sum investments.
  • The PPF interest rate is higher than the NSC rate.
  • PPF allows partial withdrawals while NSCs have a lock-in of 5 years.
  • PPF offers more liquidity due to the loan facility against deposits.

So while both offer Section 80C deduction, the Public Provident Fund is more flexible and liquid. NSCs however have lower minimum investment requirements.

Key Takeaways

The Public Provident Fund offers a balanced mix of assured returns, flexibility in deposits, liquidity through loans and complete tax exemption, making it a purpose-built product for long-term savings and tax planning. While no investment avenue is completely risk-free, the sovereign guarantee, fixed returns and wealth creation potential make PPF an attractive debt option for conservative investors.

However, one must align investments to specific financial goals and risk appetite. For working professionals, a mix of Public Provident Funds and Equity funds can help build a healthy retirement corpus. Individuals in high tax brackets benefit the most from PPF tax savings. So analyze your requirements and consider including the Public Provident Fund in your portfolio for its unique benefits.

Common queries about PPF – Clearing the Confusion

What is the minimum and maximum amount that can be deposited in a PPF account annually?

The minimum annual contribution is Rs 500 while the maximum amount that can be deposited is Rs 1.5 lakhs in a financial year. Deposits can be made as a lump sum or in instalments.

Can a PPF account be opened online?

Yes, many banks like SBI, ICICI, Axis and HDFC allow the opening of Public Provident Fund accounts online. The KYC documents and application form need to be submitted online to complete the process.

Is a PPF account only for self investment or can someone open it on behalf of others?

While the Public Provident Fund is primarily meant for individuals, accounts can also be opened for minors by parents/guardians. Similarly, PPF accounts can be opened for HUF businesses or adult dependents by guardians.

Can an NRI invest in PPF in India?

Yes, Public Provident Fund accounts can be opened by Non-Resident Indians (NRIs). However, they need to be opened through checks in INR from the NRO account. NRIs cannot invest in PPF online or via cash/debit card.

How often are PPF interest rates revised?

The PPF interest rate is determined by the central government every quarter. The rates are announced on the last working day of every quarter for the next quarter.

What is the process and limit for extending a PPF account after 15 years?

The PPF account can be extended indefinitely beyond 15 years in blocks of 5 years. To extend an account after maturity, a request form needs to be submitted along with fresh contributions. There is no limit on the number of extensions.

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